cropping (See crop)
1 the yield from plants in a single growing season [syn: harvest]
2 a collection of people or things appearing together; "the annual crop of students brings a new crop of ideas"
3 the output of something in a season; "the latest crop of fashions is about to hit the stores"
4 the stock or handle of a whip
5 a pouch in many birds and some lower animals that resembles a stomach for storage and preliminary maceration of food [syn: craw]
1 cut short; "She wanted her hair cropped short"
3 yield crops; "This land crops well"
6 cultivate, tend, and cut back the growth of; "dress the plants in the garden" [syn: snip, clip, trim, lop, dress, prune, cut back] [also: cropping, cropped]
- present participle of crop
Cropping refers to the removal of the outer parts of an image to improve framing, accentuate subject matter or change aspect ratio. Depending on the application, this may be performed on a physical photograph, artwork or film footage, or achieved digitally using image editing software. The term is common to the film, broadcasting, photographic, graphic design and printing industries.
Cropping in photography, print & designIn the printing, graphic design and photography industries, cropping refers to removing unwanted areas from a photographic or illustrated image. One of the most basic photo manipulation processes, it is performed in order to remove an unwanted subject or irrelevant detail from a photo, change its aspect ratio, or to improve the overall composition. It is considered one of the few editing actions permissable in modern photojournalism along with tonal balance, colour correction and sharpening. A crop made from the top and bottom of a photograph may produce an aspect which mimics the panoramic format (in photography) and the widescreen format in cinematography and broadcasting. Both of these formats are not cropped as such, rather the product of highly specialised optical configuration and camera design.
Cropping in cinematography & broadcasting
In certain circumstances, film footage may be cropped to change it from one aspect ratio to another, without stretching the image or filling the blank spaces with letterbox bars (fig. 2).
Aspect ratio concerns are a major issue in film making. Rather than cropping, the cinematographer traditionally uses mattes to increase the latitude for alternative aspect ratios in projection and broadcast. Anamorphic optics (such as Panavision lenses) produce a full-frame, horizontally compressed image from which broadcasters and projectionists can matte a number of alternative aspect ratios without cropping relevant image detail. Without this, widescreen reproduction, especially for television broadcasting, is dependent upon a variety of soft matting techniques such as letterboxing, which involves varying degrees of image cropping http://www.filmbug.com/dictionary/aspect-ratios.php(see figures 2, 3 and 4)
Since the advent of widescreen television, a similar process removes large chunks from the top & bottom to make a standard 4:3 image fit a 16:9 one, losing 25% of the original image. This process has become standard in the United Kingdom , in TV shows where many archive clips are used, which gives them a zoomed-in, cramped image with significantly reduced resolution. This is nonetheless preferred to a process called pillarboxing, where black bands are placed down the sides of the screen, allowing the origial image to be shown full-frame within the wider aspect ratio (fig. 6). See this article for a fuller description of the problem.
<Gallery caption="Typical cropping in cinematographic and broadcast applications" widths="200px" heights="120px" perrow="3"> :A pillarboxed image, allowing the full 4:3 frame to be viewed within a cropped 16:9 widescreen
Additional methodsVarious methods may be used following cropping or may be used on the original image.
cropping in German: Cropping
cropping in Russian: Кадрирование
cropping in Albanian: Cropping